Absheron economic-geographical region print
The area surrounds Absheron peninsula, the East areas of Gobustan and South-East territory of Samur-Davachi lowland as well as Baku and Absheron archipelagos. Absheron, Khizi, Baku and Sumgait are included to these areas. The relict of the territory mainly consists of highlands and hilly plains. Sea coast areas of the territory are below the sea level by nearly 28 meters. The maximum height of the territory located on the North-West side is called Dubrar Mountain (2205 m). Dubrar is the part of the Caucasus Mountain range and was formed by the nescom clayey and limestone of Cretaceous, mergel and conglomerates. Atachay starts from Dubrar with mountain-grassland relief.
The climate is principally mild warm and dry subtropical. The annual amount of sun luster is 2200-2400 hours. According to thc average temperature of the coldest month, the severe winter occurring on the area is usually mild (0: -5 C), much milder (2.5-0 C) and the mildest (5-2.5 C). This area differs in lowest rainfall (200-400 mm) level, bui it the most windy area of country as well. Feasible evaporation for warm periods (April-October) is around 1000 mm. In June-September months the number of arid days is ranging between 5-25 days. The average annual rate of the wind is fixed around 4-6 m/second and more. The climate here changes between moderate continental and middle continental. The length of non-frosty period during the year comprises 250 days or more, but the amount of days with temperature below 0 C is 10-20 in Absheron, 10-100 in Khizi, 10-20 or less in Baku and 10-20 in Sumgait. Despite the fact that the number of snowy days in Khizi reaches 10-20 days. Absheron, Qaku and Sumgait demonstrate 10 or even less days.
Rivers and lakes. Sumgaitchay, Jeirankechmaz, Tughchay and others are the main rivers of the territory. The area demonstrates very rich landscape diversity. Thus, there are landscapes such as semi-desert, dry-steppe and mountain-meadow landscapes within the territory. Samur-Absheron and the part of the Absheron water channels, Jeiranbatan water reservoir and Mirzaladi salt lakes are located in this area. Absheron has the great resort-recreation potential.
Soil and biodiversity. The climates for the main parts of the area are dry summers with dry steppe and temperate semi-desert acccptable for semi-desert wormwood and wormwood-saline, saline-ephemeral plant types. The main plant diversity of area is covered by wormwood-ephemeraI, wormwood-gencizli, wormwood-saIine, wormwood-grain and different wormwood-grain plant formations.
Less precipitation falling during the period of vegetation, accumulation of soil humus layer and the surface temperature rise in the atmosphere and amount of evaporated moisture sufficiently more than rainfall are reasons for poor vegetation, less of flora (8 .1-12.5 c/ha) and poor soil organic and mineral nutrients in the environment. Moreover, in the territories of Baku Qulaghi, Keklikhdagh, Otmanbozdagh, Boyukdagh and Kichikdagh there are different types of trees and bushes such as pomegranate (Punica granatum), hackberry (Celtis glabrata), fig (Ficus carica), juniper prickly (Juniperus oxycedrus), Eastern juniper (Juniperus polycarpos), wild cherry (Cerasus microcarpa), Pallas buckthorn (Rhamnus pallasii), rock cotoneaster (Cotoneaster saxatilis), dog rose (Rosa canina), jasmine (Jasminum transcaucasica) and tamarix (Tamarix meyeri). The patterns shows that there were arid forests in these areas. Rare patterns of Hanging Boxtom (Lycium depressum) were remained in the central areas of the territory. Russian Boxtorn (Lycium ruthenicum) and tamarixs were spreaded at the coast of Sumgaitchay, in the north part of the territory. There are mountain meadows and forests in the north-west part of region. Some 9931 ha of the area is covered with forests (5.81 %). East peanut (Fagus orientalis) and oak-hornbearn forests in Khizi region are mainly spread in the basins of Atachay and Tughchay, also starting from the lower part of the village of Altiagac up to north slope of Mounlain Taraput. Some peculiar trees of the area are Willow-leafed Pear (Pyrus salicifolia) and haw thom (Crataegus pentagyna, C.orientalis) spread either separately or in groups along the territory. The average annual tempcrature in the area is up to 13.6 C, relative humidity is 73 % and the evaporation reaches to 2064 mm. Moreover, in summer period rainfalls is becoming abated (16 mm) but evaporation is rising (467.0 mm).