Guba - Khachmaz economic-geographical region print
Guba-Khachmaz region occupies 8 % of the country and is situated in the Northern-East of Great Caucasus. Daghestan Autonomous Republic of Russian Federation in the North-West, Great Caucasus ridge in South-West. Caspian Sea in the East are borders of the region. Siyazan, Shabran, Khachmaz, Guba and Gusar regions were included to the territory. Due to the fact that main part of the territory is covered by mountains, the flora and fauna of the area is picturesque. As the region is surrounded by Babadagh and Shahdagh it creates mild climate and favorable conditions for rich flora and fauna. The relict of the region consists of mountains in the south and western parts (North Eastem slopes of Great Caucasus) and plains in the North and East (Gusar inclined plain, Samur-Davachi lowland). The sea coast areas are down to 28 m below sea level. The maximum height is 4466 m (Bazarduzu Mountain). The sediments of Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogen, Neocene and Anthropogenic sediments are spread in the area. The territory abounds with mineral waters and other natural geographical monuments (Galaalti mineral water, Beshbarmagh mountain, karst caves etc.).
Rivers: Gusarchay, Gudialchay, Garachay, Valvala, Gilgilchay, Shabran, Davachi, Takhtachay, Garadahna and etc. The length of 2 rivers Gusarchay (106 km) and Gudialchay (101 km) are more than 100 km. The larest lake of the region is Aghzibirchala Lake with sweet water is near Caspian Sea Coast covering the area of 1.5 km2.
Land cover: The typical soil ofthearea is: alluvial meadow, gray brown, brown, mountain brown, brown and brown mountain forest, mountain meadow and half types o f thc soil.
Plant cover: Subalpine and alpine meadows of high mountains have been used as summer pastures though meadows of foothills and plains have been used as winter pastures. Despite the fact that mountain forests cover large space, lowland forests have spread on the shore of the Caspian Sea, in the Northern part of the area. In total the forests of the area cover about 131.654 hectares; additionally the area s covered with forests are 119,571 hectars.
Climate: The climate o f the territory is warm temperate with dry summers and dry desert in plains and upland tundra type in high mountains. The annual amount of solar luster is 2200-2400 hours. According to the average temperature of the coldest month, winters of the area pass mild (0; -5 C), much milder (2.5-0 C) and the mildest (5-2.5 C). Feasible evaporation for w arm periods (April-October) is around 200-600 mm. The number of arid days is ranging between 0.5-5 days between June and September and the middle annual rate of the wind changes around 2 m/second and less. Co ntinental climate is around weak, moderate continental and middle continental ranges. The length of non frost period during the year is 100-250 days or more, but the amount of days with temperature below 0 C is 10-100 days in Siyazan-Shabran, 10-50 days in Khacmaz, 10-100 days in Guba and 50-150 days and more in Gusar. The days with snow cover fluctuates between 10-160 days: 10-80 days and less in Siyazan, 10-80 days in Shabran, 10-20 days in Khachmaz, 20-160 days in Guba and Gusar. The area owns high-resort recreation potential (climate seaside resorts, thrrapeutics resorts, climatic coastal recreation and treatment).