Nakhchivan economic-geographical region print
Ordubad, Julfa, Shahbuz, Nakchivan, Kangarli and Sadarak regions are the parts of Nakhchivan economic geographical region. The region covers the territory of Nakchivan Autonomous Republic. The most parts of the area are covered with Zangazur and Daralayaz chains and their tributaries towards Araz River. The highest rivers are Gapijig (3904 m), Yaghlidara (3827 m), Gazangoldagh (3814 m), Saridara (3754 m), Davaboynu (3560 m) and other mountains. The left part was covered with sloping Arazboyu plains (Sadarak, Sharur, Boyukdaz, Kangarli, Nakhchivan, Julfa, Ordubad plains and etc.) separated from each other with mountain tributanes and moraines.
Geological structure. From the geological point of view, the area locates in Araz tectonic zone of Lesser Caucasus. The area is rich with geological nature monuments. The geographical location the coverage of the region with mountain ranges on either sides (Kognur-Alagoz, Zangazur and Daralayaz) and location far away from the large water reservoirs (Balck Sea, Caspian Sea) affects to the climate of Autonomous Republic. The climate of the region is divided to 5 parts. Temperate warm semi desert with dry summers and dry steppe climate cover Arazboyu plains and low mountainous areas. Semi-deserts with dry winters, dry steppe semi-desert and dry-steppe climates cover the top, middle and low parts (1100-1600 m) of lower mountain zone. Cold semi-desert with dry summers and dry-steppe climates cover the higher parts of middle mountain zone and low parts (1600 - 2600 m) of high mountainous zone. Cold climate with dry and cool summers cover only the South Western parts of high mountainous zone, 2600 - 3200 meters height. Upland tundra climate covers the high mountain peaks (more than 3200 m).
Rivers. There are approximately 400 large and small rivers in the territory of Autonomous Republic. These are Arpachay (126 km), Nakhchiv- anchay (81 km), Alinjachay (62 km), Gilanchay (53 km), Baghirsagdara (33 km), Duylunja (30 km), Vanan- dchay (29 km), Paragachay (21 km), Kukuchay (20 km) and Ordubadchay (19 km).
Lakes: Because of the arid climate the number of the lakes is less and the size is small. There are up to 20 lakes in the territory. Ganligol Lake (2424 m above sea level) and Salvarti Lake (2843 m above sea level) locate in the source of the river with the same names and Goy-Gol Lake locates on the source of Sagharsu (the left tributary of Gilandagh) river, above 3065 m of sea level.
Soil. The plain and mountain soils spread in the territory are followings: primary and peaty mountain meadow, turfen mountain meadow, steppe mountain meadow, brown mountain forest, typical brown mountain forest, carbonate and semi-steppe brown mountain forest, common brown mountain, doze-sulphate chestnut mountain, fair chestnut mountain, primary gray meadow and salt slaine soils.
Vegetation. The area has a rich flora and biodiversity with 170 families and 2835 representatives. Wormwood (Artemisia sp.) and salsola (Salsola sp.) plants grow in desert and semi deserts of Arazboyu plains and low mountainous (600-1200 m) areas. Chilean (Astragalus sp.), Prickly thrift (Acantholimon sp.), sainfoin (Onobrychis sp.), thyme (Thymus sp.), fescue (Festuca sp.), deadly nightsalc (Stachys sp.) and other species. Plants in steppe and mountain steppe areas create mountain steppe forms. The dry steppe plants of the region are Kochi's wild thyme (Thymus kotschyanus), felty germander (Teucrium polium), skullcaps (Scutellaria darriensis), Trail twetters catmint (Nepeta trautvetteri), Caucasian sainfoin (Onobrychis transcaucasica), Akaka onion (Allium akaka), goat's- thom (Astragalus tribuloides) and buglcwecd (Ajuga chamaecistus).
Oriental Oak forests (Quercus macranthera) have spread more widely compared with other species as the small park forests in 1800-2400 meters height. The plants of oak forests are common ash (Fraxinus excelsior), Iberian Birch (Acer iberica), pear (Pyrus sp.), almond (Amygdalus sp.), honeysuckle (Lonicera iberica), euonymus (Euonymus latifolia), mountain ash (Sorbus sp.) medlar (Mespilus germanica), cherry plum (Prunus divaricata), hawthorn (Crataegus pentagyna), grass plants as khotweed (Polygonum sp.), crude drug (Bupleurum sp.), vetch (Vicia sp.) poa (Poa sp.) and barberry (Dactylis sp.), Moreover, juniper (Juniperus sp.) and willow (Salix sp.) grow in other forests of the region.
Mountain steppes, partial subalpine and alpine meadows have spread in high mountainous zone. There are cow parsnip (Heracleum trachyloma), clover (Trifolium pratense), caraway (Carum carvi), fescue (Festuca sclerophylla), cock’s-foot (Dactylis glomerata), Caucasian larkspur (Delphinium caucasicum), dock (Rumex acetosa), Ploughman’s-spikenard (Inula sp.), starthistles (Centaurea sp.), Campion (Silene sp.), gound (Rheum sp.), vetches (Vicia sp.) species in the region. Alpine mats creates small formations as Carum caucasicum, Alchemilla grossheimii, Plantago saxatilis, Taraxacum stevenii, and Sibbaldia parviflora, Campanula tridentata, Minuartia aizoides in rocky mountains. There are 65 endemic plants in the region. These are followings: Anabasis eugeniae, Campanula karakuschensis, Pyrethrum ordubadensis, Tragopogon nachitschevanicus, Galium atropatanum, Astragalus aznabjurticus, A.nachitschevanicus, A.ordubadensis, Rosa karjaginii, Salsola futilis, Milium transcaucasicum, Melica schischkinii, Stipa gaubae, S.issaevii, Bromus tzvelevii, Elytrigia heidemaniae.
Fauna. The area has a rich fauna species. It should be noted that 60 % of total fauna of Azerbaijan could be found in Nakchivan region. Furthermore, the region is specified with endemic plants. For instance more than 150 species of scales or shields (Squamata) could be found in Nakhchivan region. The 2250 insects found in the area are represented by 25 species South Caucasus plants and 51 species Nakhchivan endemic plants. The ixtofauna of the region is distinguished with its richness and originality. These are Kura Nase (Chondrosloma cyri), Kura Gudgeon (Gobio persa), Sevan Khramulya (Varicorhinus capoeta sevangi), Kura Barbel (Barbus cyri), bleak (Alburnoides bipunctatus), Angora Loach (Neniacheilus angorae), Turkestan Barbel (Barbus capilo), brook trout (Salmo trutta fario) and etc fishes.
There are 6 amphibians and 35 reptile species in the territory. The amphibians are Eastern spadefoot (Pelobates syriacus), European tree frog (Hyla arborea), common toad (Bufo viridis), marsh frog (Rana ridibunda) and long legged wood frog (Rana macrocnemis). The reptiles of the region were represented by Greek tortoise (Testudo graeca), sunwatcher (Phrynocephalus helioscopus), snake eyed lizard (Ophisops elegans), dice snake (Natrix tessellata), col loured dwarf (Eirenis collaris) and Levant viper (Macrovipera lebetina) species. The ornitofauna of the region was represented by 246 species. The most significants are house sparrow (Passer domesticus), Crested Lark (Galerida cristata), Rock Pigeon (Columba livia), Woodchat Shrike (Lanius senator), Eastern olivaceaous (Hippolais pallida), Orphean Wrabler (Sylvia hortensis) and other species.
The mammals were represented with 61 species as Southern white breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor), Long-eared hedgehog (Hemiechinus auritus), Lesser White-toothed Shrew (Crocidura suaveolens), Biocolored Shrew (Crocidura leucodon) and others. The flying mammals are bats: Greater Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), Mediterranean Horseshoe Bat (R.eutyale), Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) and other species. The eventoed ungulates (Artiodactyla) of the region are boar (Sus scrofa), bezoar goat (Capra aegagrus), Minor Asia moufflon (Ovis orientalis) and the rodents are Forest Dormouse (Dryomys nitedula), Small Five-toed Jerboa (Allactaga elater), Caucasus Field Mouse (Apodemus ponticus), Porcupine (Hystrix leucura) and other species. The predators are jackal (Canis aureus), wolf (Canis lupus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), brown bear (Ursus arctos), wild cat (Felis libyca), Manul cat (Felis manul) and lynx (Lynx lynx).